“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And even though we may be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is really a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons in the future.
For individuals who aim to discover truths in regards to the workings of your cell, holding back the floodgates of time is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be enthusiastic about very specific cell properties that take place at critical junctions in the life of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties might be exploited is similar to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one strategy to the situation from the slow burn. By reduction of the temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments in time, returning time and again to look into that instant in the past.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become a significant industry which enables customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the industry in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your numerous products to choose from expertise in the ones that are handiest may elude the average consumer. In order to provide a review of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will probably be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those items that a lot of people never think of until they quit working. Created to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels of your laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory of the day in the event it did. A career’s worth of samples could be lost in a single afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Though this type of scenario looms ominously within the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, not every person is prepared for the entire day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies may be the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. Even though natural gas industry provides this method for a long time, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is an assortment of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and it is allowed to expand through a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes support the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators can be incorporated in the cycle to ensure the expansion of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is ideal for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The machine allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and also since it provides an internal power source it can be used for the transportation of samples from storage facility to examine laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the demand for controlled temperature ramping.
“Being a user you wish to are aware of the minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for extended periods. Locking lids are offered so that you can protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a great deal of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to perform longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special combination of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. In addition, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it well in order that the capillary tubing will be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with 40 years of experience under its belt, So-Low is probably the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the industry. As soon as the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was one of the primary to make use of Dupont Suva 95, the brand new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low has also developed a modern compressor which is designed just for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units rather than the normal cylindrical containers. Each one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to accommodate a selection of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than half a century of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. It also features a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo continues to be manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than 2 decades, beginning with its manufacture of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the growth of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to provide a complete range of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The phrase dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now placed on a variety of insulated vessels created for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending on their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can be accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as one year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall is made up of an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to this type of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to order. Many of these companies along with their merchandise is reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for numerous types of applications. Naturally, animal breeders are just a small percentage of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing section of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to formulate biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that time MVE has released the total collection of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures as low as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that could be stored at -125°C but could become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also ideal for storing hazardous materials which may cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, like contaminated-blood bags which are liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has managed to remain competitive is by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they can be custom-designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries outside Canada And America and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is an issue of concern. That is probably the factors why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator in which the helium is retained in the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified for usage over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask line of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models is available with a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to supply coolant retention for samples saved in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by numerous companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and present features like super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and get capacities as much as 6,000 vials. As well as several of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, along with an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates experience of liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, and each and every wide-mouth model has a vented polyethylene stopper to minimize evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are designed for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of two weeks. All of these units come built with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store large amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the number of vials that can be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the most frequently used and least considered implements from the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to visit shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the initial in which concerns the matter of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials are definitely more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate continues.
Another consideration which comes under consideration when selecting cryogenic tubes is the material from which they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they take longer to warm which might negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes may also be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with the care, and a few companies like Axygen are switching to new polished molds that do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, on the other hand, warms rapidly but is additionally subjected to fracture due to microchannels which might form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the potential for explosion is not as great.
Gasketing has been specifically a challenge of some contention with this industry. Many cryovials are equipped with a washer that keeps the interior pressure from the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas in the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid with the lids of several non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it possesses a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge which had been demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, offers a large selection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures as little as -190°C. Intended for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come designed with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip along with a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in combination with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® type of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen even offers a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. These include polypropylene tubes, which may be used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has designed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding options that come with this tube is it is utterly transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a variety of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to use within a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and therefore are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, whilst the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof in the microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the business warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed a substantial catalog of merchandise for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are ideal to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction makes them exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored having a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and easy-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without having mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added limited to the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which are typical constituents of dyes. Each of the company’s vials is made to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system comes with a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned in the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be ideal for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation which come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has the choice of selecting from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which may be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material that they are constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its line of products is the need for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be found in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has been sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical a part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they can undergo changes that make them difficult to keep trace. Labels may become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular methods for containing samples will be the canister and cane. Applying this technique, a number of vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer technique is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of the system reduces exposure a chance to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation from the freezer, plus lessens the researcher’s contact with potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the volume of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to arrange approximately 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International is an expert in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Made for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to put just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in some models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed in order to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They provide vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids in order to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic canisters. The truth is, many of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with a number of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless and include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones that will be used for a long time. A purchase made today may continue for 10 years. Essentially, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products by themselves, these are buying with regard to their successors. The buyer should think about what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A little money which was saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not seem like the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards built in to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these products a priority. Appointing a lasting position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of such samples.